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نظرية الإلتصاق – Attachment Theory

Attachment theory

النظرية

بالمشائم تلتصق الأجنة بأرحام والداتهن، في الرضاعة و المداعبة والحمل تبقى الرضع ملتصقة بأمهاتها. هذا جزء من الفطرة البشرية التي ستصاحبنا مدى العمر. الالتصاق. إن كل ممارساتنا الاجتماعية الأكثر ألفة هي أنواع متفاوته من الالتصاق.

ثم حين يكون و نتعرض للفصل عن بعضنا. فإننا نتفاعل بأشكال مختلفة. مثلا:

الإحتجاج: منبعه التوتر الناجم عن الفصل

اليأس: منبعه الحزن و الفجيعة

التجاهل أو الانفصال: وهو سلوك دفاعي في المقام الأول رداً على الكبت واحتواءً سلبياً للحزن

الإسقاط على أرض المجتمع

عاش المجتمع السوري طوال عقود في عمر المراهقة. يرد نقاشاً معمقاً لهذا واسناداً لنظريات مرجعية في مكان لاحق في تسلسل هذه النظريات لكن حالياً يكتفى بالاشارة لمراهقية المجتمع يعود لتسطيح ثقافي وانتاجي مارسه نظام شمولي على مر 41 عاماً سبقت الثورة. النزق المراوح بين الحاجة الطبيعية للالتصاق الاجتماعي والفطري من جهة وانعدام الثقة والأمراض الاجتماعية النفسية من جهة أخرى  من طرف آخر ألقى بظلال شائكة على سلوك السوريين الفردي والجماعي خلال السنوات الماضية

على مستوى الفصل العنيف عن “بعضنا” سنرى تجليات واضحة لتعبيرات الاحتجاج، اليأس والتجاهل إذا ما ألقينا النظر عميقاً في ظوهر الاعتقال، اللجوء ، وما يصطلح كثيرون على تسميته “سرقة” أو “قتل” الثورة السورية.

المراجع

Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1963). The development of infant-mother interaction among the Ganda. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (pp. 67-104). New York: Wiley.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment, New York: Basic Books

Bowlby, J. (1973) Attachment and loss: Volume 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger, New York: Basic Books

نظرية الإرتداد – Reactance Theory

reactance theory

النظرية

تصف هذه النظرية حالة السلوك الإنساني في وضعية التحفز تحت الضيق والقلق والرغبة في استعادة الحريات المسلوبة

 وفقا لهذه النظرية، عندما يشعر الفرد بأنه مرغم على اتخاذ سلوك معين بشكل قسري فإنه سوف يتفاعل ضد هذا الإكراه. وكثيرا ما يتجسد هذا التفاعل برغبة متزايدة بتبني واتباع السلوك المقيد حالياً. ويتجلى هذا الشعور العارم بالإستياء من حالة الإذعان واستلاب الحريات بسلوك يأتي معاكساً تماماً  لما أرادته السلطة القامعة

تجربة

وضع بينيباكر وساندرز (1976) لافتتين على جدران حمامات/تواليتات الكلية. كُتِبَ على واحدة منها: “لا تكتب على هذه الجدران تحت أي ظرف من الظروف” في حين كُتِبَ على الأخرى “من فضلك لا تكتب على هذه الجدران”. بعد بضعة أسابيع كانت الجدران التي حملت لافتة: ‘لا تكتب على هذه الجدران تحت أي ظرف من الظروف” مليئة بالكتابات أكثر بكثير من الجدران التي حملت اللافته الأخرى.

المراجع

Brehm, J. W. (1966) A theory of psychological reactance, New York: Academic Press

Pennebaker, J. W. and Sanders, D. Y. (1976) American graffiti: Effects of authority and reactance arousal. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, 264-267

 

الاسقاط على أرض المجتمع

الـ “لا” شكلت أغلب وعي السوريين. ما جاء في عهد الأسد وضع كل تعاليم المنع الدينية وقوانين الممنوع الوضعية في الجيبة الصغرى للبنطال. لآت نظام الأسد فاقت كل تعاريف الحدود. في الحقيقة هي لم توضع لضبط الحدود الاجتماعية وضمان السلم والرفاه الانساني بل وضعت لحبس الانسان في ظلمات الرعب. لا ..لا ..لا ..لا..لا ..لا

كان مكافئها الوحيد “نعم” للأسد. فاز الأسد في الانتخابات الرئاسية مرارا وتكرار بنسب 99 % !!! من أصوات الشعب السوري الذي أجاب قسرا بـ “نعم”. حمى المنع طالت بالطبع السياق الاجتماعي من الزواج للطعام فاللباس فالضحك. كل هذا سيأتي ذكره و تفسيره ومآلات ارتباطاته بالثورة السورية في نظريات مقبلة

Capricious Organism

My friend Cecile asked me to contribute something to their new issue of Matago.

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Capricious Organism | Bilal Zaiter

http://www.matago.fr/

Matago is a biannual magazine devoted to short stories and visuals that simply claim to offer a different image of humanity than the one with high reductive and anxiety contents, now disseminated by hegemonic information, before all concerned for the moment. The Matago chooses to open windows on memory and imagination, the elsewhere, and the marvelous, the history of women and men and, through them, their civilizations. Neither journalistic nor polemical, in “the era of time”.

Here is what i wrote and would like to share with you.

Capricious Organism

The bike’s wheel embraces the feather
as the kid jumps to pick the sonnet
another feather falls to fill the hole in the bonnet
The prisoner eats a plate of stones, lentil, and cordonnet

From the crack of the prison slither the feather, the only left finger twirl it with pleasure

The king is angry and all his egos dither
But the doors are open and love’s tether sutures time patches all together
Christmas this year is gentle and warm like a zither

Most birds migrate
where time’s corticate
is coruscate and corrugate
Where no one invades the clouds or their hearts ablates

I wonder the sky, promenade and parade
carrying my dreams in my socks, or baguette
Sometimes i drop my beanie
Sometimes i fix my tie
But i remain a dolphin -or maybe just a human- scrapping the wind of time

Once upon life time i was an ant
Carrying back home my bread under my armpit
One in the middle class, like a windmill, careless and self-made
That was long time ago, before 2011, when the walls were grey, and the boots were high like the heat of ovean
The mouth was small, the eyes were oval, like unpleasant surprise
Then one day, another ant in the camp played her trumpet

I am a gazelle, from balcony to street, and from fear to light i jumped
Then the plane threw the cage, where my friends and I were trapped
I eat the dry grass on the bars and the insults of the guard, until i turned into a mouse i tasted the cheese there in the darkness landscaped
The hunter saw me and said, i should not eat, as i am just a stone, and so his orders i obeyed, and what he said I so much hard tried not to be.
Gently, I fantasized time, dropping gracefully in my cracks, until my soul jumped out and that was the moment to time I looped
I wondered the streets. searching for my dreams. i licked the corners of songs jars, my hair turned grey, and my heart was freezed.

So with a confident heart of a beautiful apostate
i decided to leave
I spread my wings wider than the logic of time, and the human’s lie
Smoother like my dream
i have been flying for the past four years

I joined millions of birds
Lonely people like us, you and me
Migrants
Widow women missing their loves
Aggressed who were betrayed in silence deep and hard
Protestors who died
Protestors who cried, and protestors who in themselves believed, and just for such a reason they were tortured
I joined the music of metros
Teenagers who were rejected and marginalized

Cracked hands of the homeless : that is to say humans like you and me who has no stove, nor home or glass to drink the wine of a new year
We are flying together … since years
Every day and dream
Our feathers fall
The window of the office, the fire place of the house are open. The sofa in the studio, the drawer in the kitchen.
Where a feather from a migrant will come
The feather of an ant, gazale, turtle, dolphin, panda, bear, cat, dog, human, bird… will come one day

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In french

 

Bref, FN Wins . . . France Loses.

 

Notre Dame De Paris

With the unprecedented success of the French extreme-right party Front national (FN) in the first round of the regional elections, few points worth noting.

1- First, the results show CLEARLY that the majority of French citizens do ACTUALLY support FN program.
 
2- Secondly, this is to say somehow that at least 2 out of the 3 French republic’s values have been destroyed, or at least facing serious troubles/challenges, namely: égalité and fraternité.
 
3- The third value; Liberté, is in great doubt if it is still holding true. Under the tighten measurements imposed by the french government both freedoms of expression and access to information are in serious danger.
 
4- In the sense of the above, how a question of importance is: How much the immune system of France is capable anymore to defend French citizens lives and more importantly sense of life!
 
Not only the most genuine values of the French culture are being under threat by the French themselves this time when voting extreme, but also this is a clear manifestation of how the French society is getting closed on itself. This is not only economically threatening but it is a cultural-self-suicide.
 
Those voting extreme are not only abandoning all the French humanitarians contribution since world war two, they are indeed throwing in the name of fear the French culture. Apparently, if 9/11 had enabled Bush to occupy Iraq, the 2015 terrorists attacks in France had enabled FN to occupy France. 
Great job FN! You made unprecedented success, however, the only problem is that with those who voted for you. They had chosen to throw out the champagne with the cork! They threw the baby out with the bathwater! 

France and terrorism | Article One: 23 lines.

Flowers in hand near the Rue de Charonne in Paris. Courtesy AFP

Flowers in hand near the Rue de Charonne in Paris. Courtesy AFP

Dear already shocked reader,

We need to come together. Not only as a compassionate act, nor to fight terrorism , but to understand why this happened, happening and possibly sadly can happen again!

Let us agree about the following 23 lines as a start. Otherwise, you will not find any of the coming posts of much value.

1- What happened in France is a large scale terrorism attack.

2- Condemning the attacks is important.

3- Condemning the attacks is not enough.

4- Any one can condemn the attacks, even terrorists themselves.

5- The speed of response to the attacks is indicative, but more importantly the quality of the response.

6- The pain of people should not be commercialized nor politicized.

7- French are not one person and talking to them, about them, with them, should not be like talking to one person.

8- Muslims are not one person and talking to them, about them, with them, should not be like talking to one person.

9- Terror resistance policies seems to be arguably insufficient. And there are solutions for that.

10- Social media activism is important.

11- Many of Muslims are mentally terrorists.

12 – Many of French are mentally colonizers.

13- Unfortunately, most of the time we search media to confirm our beliefs and not to search facts.

14- Unfortunately, most of the big media institutions’ agendas are economically and politically manipulated.

15- The mother of the terrorist is not a terrorist and relatively equally is not his father too.

16- Nothing on this earth, nor in books, bible, quran, or toilet paper, would tell a person to kill an innocent person.

17- Killing one innocent person is a killing for all humans on this earth.

18 – As long as there are dictators in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Qatar and other states there will be terror attacks.

19- Moderate Muslims need support to fight Radical ones.

20- Language itself is a source of terror.

21- So many Muslims are keeping silence/d in such big human events, and this is really dangerous.

22- If immigrants have no problem taking the boats and going back home tomorrow, what will be the next step?

23- I do not care about all this 22 previous shits. I want to enjoy my dinner, concert, football match, love. I want to live my life full, and I am willing to do anything to make this happen.

If you agree, partially at least, with the above 23 lines then you may find the coming series of posts somehow helpful to minimize the probability of a next terrorists attack.

Click subscribe to read the coming related posts.

Peace,

b

Paris Match, Louvre, Le Monde, OM, and my french language

 

Paris Match 500 words

Paris Match 500 words

I thought of exploring something new in my lexical and social networks trips. The alternative way to learn new languages’ vocabulary by immersing in a contexts of interest to the learner. This is well known for educators and language facilitators. But what can add to this field with a possible realization of the potentials social networks can bring here?

 

So i went on Facebook network, and I explored the language coming from four french pages on Facebook. By French I mean the entity owning the page is a french one. Just like OM | OLYMPIQUE DE MARSEILLE. I did that on the tree consecutive days as i was busy with some other stuff.

My main objective was to note the french vocabulary used on these four networks. And, for this quick work I allocate only a couple of hours as all I wanted was just to have a first look and not to dig any further.  To do so, i needed to go two steps:

First: do some quantitive research on the most repeated (100 and 500) words used in fans comments on the last (100) posts by each one of these pages. A post could be a link, photo, video, or text status.

Second: to visualize the result in word cloud style. Just to be gentle with the eyes.

So let us now have a look together.

Part one – Data:

Network OM (Sport) Paris Match (Journalism) Le Monde (Journalism) Louvre (Museum)
Date: 31-Jul-15 2-Aug-15 3-Aug-15 3-Aug-15
Fans: 4,800,000 664,620 2,415,204 1,760,715
Posts: 100 100 100 100
Engaged users: 168809 39555 76826 143637
Liking or commenting: 745006 99875 148354 482520
Comments: 25095 5629 18798 5911
Likes: 719911 94246 129556 476609
Engaged fans % 3.52% 5.95% 3.18% 8.16%

In fact, this table is more helpful to have some notes related to media engagement rather than the linguistic work. So i am not going to discuss it here, as it belongs to another research i started in June/July 2014 about media outlets online. (NewYork times, France 24, Huffington Post, Al Jazeera, etc.). Yet what is interesting here is the users engagement ratio. as it shows for example how Paris Match is enjoying more engaged readers than Le Monde. That is one of the strong indications about quantity of fans vs. engagement of fans. Another could be interesting note is to realize how Louvre, being a cultural entity is enjoying relatively strong engagement, question is whether this engagement is leaned more towards tourism or art. to discover this one needs to compare likes to comments ratio in the first place and then do some qualitative analysis in the comments themselves.

Part Two – Visualizing:

I am going to post here the words clouds coming from the four sources (OM, Le Monde, Louvre, Paris Match) in this same order and two images per each. One visualizing the most frequent 100 words and one is visualizing most frequent 500 words.

OM 100 words

OM 100 words

OM 500 words

OM 500 words

Le Monde 100 words

Le Monde 100 words

Le Monde 500 words

Le Monde 500 words

Louvre 100 words

Louvre 100 words

Louvre 500 words

Louvre 500 words

Paris Match 100 words

Paris Match 100 words

Paris Match 500 words

Paris Match 500 words

 

So what is next?

For language learning purposes what we can do is to consider three notes:

1- Using stop lists to generate the graphs. A stop list is a list of words that you ask that you block from appearing in the visualizing or to be considered in the counting and latter analytical work. Such words can be “de, cette, par, les, tout, plus, un. .. all, from, this, that, more, etc.” this will allow for a better visualizing to what is called “concept” words. words that are related to the concept we are searching (Journalism, Art, Sport, Culture, Business, Politics..etc.)

2- But still, the work here confirms the importance of the non conceptual words. In fact these words consist 40% – 50% of languages. learning these words is half away towards learning a language! or at east reading it / recognizing it. Off course it will not solve the syntactic and semantic aspects of language constructing (which is in simpler words : making a proper and meaningful sentence) but  it is still helpful and break the ice with the language and its speakers.

3- For language experts one can rely now social networks for a more rewarding NLP/ Natural Language Processing work.

 

Finally, for me, it was interesting to continue my work on studying the richness of the language and how it is related to personality type, and personal interests. Alors, j’ai appris quelques mots nouveaux :)

Ok, that was all for this post, I hope you enjoyed it.

Europe, Refugees, and Fantasies

The Fantasy

Death is predominant. Consciously. But more critically, subconsciously, unconsciously.

We fear death, most of us, it’s ghost is there in the back of our head, every day. But we barely realize that most of our actions are led by that tiny, thrown back there fact: The Fear of Dying.

When there is extreme oppression, and when the word costs one’s own life, the fear of death gets momentum. The seed of fear wakes up and grows. The plant becomes wild. The hands want to grasp life and never let “her” go. It is the fear of death that inhabits “ALL” of us. However, there is something more frightening than death. It is to be vanished. To be completely erased.

For even by knowing that we are going to die we keep the “hope” of leaving a trace until we come back! We consider death as a temporary absence but not a complete vanishing.

When the possibility to be vanished is high, the imagination grows wilder with a strong attempt to outpace the fear of getting vanished.

The visual dominates. It is important.

There is no [imagination] without [image].

When the words are not sufficient, when the language is scarce, and when the experienced emotions are too complex to be visualized we need to [fantasize].

To fantasize means to remain. alive. 

Maybe it is now a little bit more understandable why some people cross the sea to the [golden shores] of Europe? Maybe, because there is a better [heaven] than the one religious business men [drew] for those people in their own autocratic countries!

But many in Europe are contre this crossing. This madness. mainly for economical reasons but also deeply for “ideological” ones too.

I propose here, that if this is a critical demographic question for European governments, and mainly to right and extreme right political parties, then there is a philosophical solution to this quite complex question/phenomena.

The answer is of two components:

The first is related to EU governments while the other is attributed to a work need to be done by immigrants and refugees themselves.

Firstly, EU governments under a strong public pressure, need to stop buying oil and other resources of these developing and POOR countries. EU governments should stop paying the money of tax payers (EU citizens and immigrants alike) to dictatros and anti human rights groups and individuals ruling by corruption these developing poor countries. EU leaders should stop shaking hands with dictators who are stealing those people’s resources and then killing them when they dare to make pacific revolutions. The continuous colonization through absorbing developing countries resources and sharing the benefits with dictators should be considered a national security priority for European citizens. A spirit fleeing an oppressed country through the Mediterranean is not the only risk to economy, society or environment in Europe. Only by stopping shaking hands with the dictators from Saudi Arabia to Morocco. And from Sudan to Mali, poverty, and illiteracy will stop.

Secondly, Immigrants and refugees in Europe should develop enough power of social science to understand the dynamics of European societies and write, publish, and share about these new understandings. Less fortunate people who managed to make it through fantasy to Europe should share these new understandings. By contributing real ground understanding to European societies, the new immigrants/refugees contribute to resisting the westernizing of their developed countries through exported movies, food and textile. Only then ignorance possibly faked imagery of Europe as “heaven” might stop. Only then those who are forced to cross the Mediterranean will stay home –safe- and happy and maybe visit Europe as tourists and not for social protection and security. It is then the advocacy of Westernalism to conquer westernism what is being proposed here. 

Naturally, we are not talking about homogenized group of immigrants or refugees and nor likely homogenized group of European citizens. that said, several mechanisms should be put in place to deal with immigrants. If social and economic viability is what we Europe is concerned about then a proper segmentation based on qualifications and reasons of fantasy should be put in place and also considered. Those who come to Europe to work and go back to their own countries for summer vacation every year might be – I am just saying might be- a little bit different than those who crossed the sea . gambled their lives and the lives of the ones who they love with the hope. just the hope . of remaining alive. !

The fantasy about money is much weaker than the fantasy about life. Those who arrive to the European shores with a fantasy of life do not in any way belong to the same category/genre of those who arrive to Paris and Berlin airports with a fantasy of money. While the latter seems more comforting and shadowy, the former is much deprived and poor but has an intensive / emotions that can bring a lot of beauty and energy to European societies if well-put in place. The power of fantasy is enormously wild. never neglect it. Enjoy it.